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Q47 基地と沖縄経済は、どのような関係にありますか

 投稿者:Twelve Y.O.  投稿日:2012年12月17日(月)14時35分11秒
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  日米両政府は、基地を安定的に維持し、民衆の基地反対運度を抑える為に、一貫して、沖縄社会が基地に依存せざるを得なくなるような政策をとって来ました。戦争直後、米軍基地に土地を奪われた農民は、基地で働かざるを得ませんでした。基地建設関連や、米軍相手の企業なども生まれました。

戦後の日本が、国内産業を育成し、輸入を制限し、輸出を奨励していた特、沖縄では、まったく逆の政策が取られ、生活必需品の多くを輸入品に頼り、主食の米さえアメリカのカリフォルニア米などが安い値段で流れ込んでいました。こうして多くの人を基地に縛りつけ、県民所得の約3分の1が基地関連収入によって占められる状況が作り出され、沖縄を支配するアメリカの高等弁務官が、「基地は沖縄の主要産業である」と自慢した時代がつくられました。然し基地に依存せざるを得ない社会の仕組みを作り出す事によって、やがてアメリカは、基地依存の高いコストに苦しむ事になります。ベトナム内戦への介入に失敗したアメリカは、米軍支配に抵抗する民衆の闘いと、基地維持の経済的コスト高の挟み撃ちにあって、沖縄の支配権を放棄し、日本政府の協力の下に沖縄基地を維持する政策に転換するのです。

沖縄返還後日本政府は、軍用地の使用料を大幅に引き上げ、基地交付金や基地周辺整備事業費という名目の迷惑料を地方自治体にばら撒き、日米地位協定上はアメリカが負担すべき基地労働者の人件費を肩代わりしてその待遇改善を図るなどの基地維持政策をとりました。同時に、大量の財政資金を投入して、実施された沖縄振興開発政策(Q32参照)も、少なくとも結果的には、沖縄経済の公共事業依存、中央政府依存の体質を強める事になっています。

沖縄返還後の、経済規模の拡大や観光産業の発展によって、軍用地料、基地労働者の賃金、基地交付金、米軍人軍属の消費といった基地関連収入の割合は県民所得の5~6%、観光収入の2分の1以下になっていますが、軍用地の所有者、基地労働者、基地所在市町村などにとっては、尚大きな意味を持っているといえます。また政府は、1990年代後半の基地の整理・縮小・撤去を求める民衆運動の盛り上がりに対して、地域振興策が基地受入れの代償である事を露骨に強調し始めており、公共事業依存、中央政府依存の沖縄経済の体質が、基地反対運動の足枷になっている事も間違いありません。

Q47 How are the U.S. military bases related to Okinawa's economy ?

The long-standing policy of both the JAPANESE and U.S. governments has been to force Okinawans to depend on the military bases in order to both retain the bases and suppress Okinawa's anti-military movements. Immediately after World War Ⅱ, those farmers robbed of their lands by the construction of American bases had no choice but to work there. There also emerged companies and corporations concerned with constructing military bases and serving American military personnel.

While post-war JAPAN promoted exports and protected the development of domestic industries by restricting imports, the policy applied to OKINAWA was the complete reverse. As a result, people relied heavily on imported daily necessities,and even rice (the staple food in JAPAN) was imported from California ?heaply. This was how many people became dependent on the bases and how one-third of the total income of Okinawan people derived from companies and activities that were related to military bases. At that time the American High Commissioner boasted that military bases were the principal industry in OKINAWA.

By creating a society highly dependent on the bases,however, AMERICA had to bear the costs of maintaining them. After its unsuccessful intervention in the civil war in VIETNAM, AMERICA, confronted by the twin pressures of Okinawan people's struggle against U.S. military control and the enormous expenditure needed to maintain the bases, changed its policy into one of relinquishing control over the islands and maintaining the bases in cooperation with the JAPANESE government.

After the reversion of OKINAWA, in order to retain the military bases the JAPANESE government significantly raised the rents paid to landowners, and paid local municipal governments a huge amount of money under the name of the “military base grant” and the “budget for promoting the areas surrounding bases”, to compensate for the difficulties and sacrifices caused by the presence of U.S. bases. The government also paid the salary of laborers working on base, which should have been paid by the AMERICAN government according to the Status of Forces Agreement. Furthermore, the substantial subsidies and grants provided by the “OKINAWA Promotion and Development Plans” (see Q32) have resulted in Okinawa's economy becoming more dependent on the JAPANESE government.

Due to expansion of economic activities in OKINAWA and developments in the tourist industry, military-related income,  such as rent for military-held land, salaries for workers on bases, base-related grants, and expenditure by U.S. military personnel and their dependants, has decreased to the level of 6.5% of the gross prefectural income. Military-related income now amounts to less than half the income generated by tourism but it is still important for the
ers of land occupied by the military, workers on base, and municipal communities wish a military base within their borders. Confronted by Okinawan people's struggles for realigning, reducing and eliminating American bases, the JAPANESE government has not hesitated to emphasize that local promotion and development measures are intended to compensate for acceptance of the bases. It is also not incorrect to say that the nature of OKINAWA's economy, that is, dependent on the central government and its subsidies and grants for public works projects, has kept anti-base movements from becoming more widespread.










 
 
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